Basic Rules. If you're looking for a basic introduction to the rules of Magic, download the Basic Rules PDF by clicking the link below. Download Basic Rules PDF. All wield terrifying magic and command armies of creatures torn from the endless . The Magic: The Gathering game is a strategy game played by two or more. This document is the ultimate authority for Magic: The Gathering® competitive These Magic rules apply to any Magic game with two or more.
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some creature abilities are described in the rulebook (see "Basic Creature Abilities"). .. included with the Magic: The Gathering—Classic™ game box. Magic: The Gathering is a game with detailed and, at times, complex rules. Knowledge of the game's rules is necessary to play the game. Magic: The Gathering is a CCG (Collectable Card Game). The game uses a fantasy . "Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules" (PDF). The DCI. July 11 .
Now what does a graph of this relationship look like? As we add lands to our deck, our total utility increases until finally we reach the point of saturation and lose utility by including more lands. We also find economics at work when considering what spells to include in a deck.
But what if to include the Blood Moon you have to replace a Lightning Bolt?
Popular Magic YouTuber Saffron Olive a actually created a video discussing opportunity cost in deck building, pointing out these very principles. These basic economic terms are familiar to Magic players simply in the context of the game they play. By calculating the odds of drawing the desired cards at the right time, he essentially combined the concepts of marginal utility and opportunity cost, showing how many ramp cards you ought to include before the opportunity cost and therefore the lost utility is too high.
Games in general are often treated as un-economic enterprises, because it is thought that people often engage in games specifically for non-utilitarian purposes. But within games themselves, we see a fantastic picture of economic life.
There is a clear goal, which provides an easy way to measure utility, and there are usually clear choices that lead to either success or failure. Card Prices and Company Oversight Constructing a deck is only one of many ways that Magic holds potential for economics researchers and teachers.
A second aspect of Magic is the aftermarket for individual cards. Because Magic is a trading card game, individual cards sometimes have massive price tags. Wizards does not sell the cards individually; as we already said, they come in mass-printed, randomized packs of cards with various rarities. So if a particular card is both rare and in high demand, the aftermarket price for that card from third-party sellers will skyrocket.
Any good economist would have some idea what caused this jump in price, even without having any idea how to play Magic or why anyone would want Jace, the Mind Sculptor in particular. The price jump came after Wizards announced that Jace would now be legal in its Modern format for Magic. There are several different play formats of Magic, each with their own lists of banned and restricted cards, and some with alternate rules.
In this case, Jace, which is a powerful card, had never been legal in the Modern format.
Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules
A whole new market of players now wanted the card to try in their Modern-legal decks. Magic players and enthusiasts know and expect this as well. What can we learn from this? Or, to put it better, what can we teach from this? First of all, economic value is subjective. It is entirely dependent upon supply and demand. Jace, the Mind Sculptor is made of cardboard and colored ink, printed on a machine somewhere.
The costs of production, including labor, are likely pennies. Because the labor theory of value is empirically false. Economic value is purely a matter of subjective preference.
Second, regulation affects prices. They can restrict the use of a card or remove a restriction, and doing so will affect card prices accordingly.
Removing restrictions will cause prices to increase. Furthermore, they can print more of a card and increase supply, which predictably decreases the price as well. In fact, Wizards started their professional league in part to save Magic from succumbing to the typical boom-and-bust cycle of speculation bubbles, such as was the case with many other trendy toys in the s, e.
Pogs, Tamagotchis, and Beanie Babies. That story revolves around one card in particular: the Black Lotus. So people are still willing to pay thousands of dollars for this little piece of printed cardboard. The demand for this card nearly killed Magic because it is supposed to be a fun card game, not a high-stakes commodity trade.
Collectors would download cheap packs of cards and then resell the rarest and most sought-after cards from the pack, such as the Black Lotus, for much more than their original worth.
Elias and others at Wizards recognized that this trend was unhealthy for the longevity of the game, because no one was actually playing with the cards. Wizards does not just want to serve speculators; they want new consumers to enter the market for their cards. Instead, overpowered cards with gigantic price tags like Black Lotus created a huge barrier to entry that threatened to completely shut the game down to anyone but rich speculators, and sooner or later they worried that no one would be interested anymore.
The bubble would burst and Magic would go the way of the Ferbie. In response, Wizards tried just banning high-priced cards. But since people only played Magic among friends, no one cared.
However, this trick could not work for the older, more powerful cards. Because those cards were selling for so much, Wizards recognized they would be stealing from people who had spent lots of money on these cards—an interesting example of the ethical quandaries of inflationary monetary policy.
To get around the problem they implemented a second strategy: They introduced different game formats. Up to that point a player could play any of the cards from the entire history of Magic in his or her decks. Now, Wizards introduced the idea of a Standard format, where only cards printed within the last two years were legal to play. While there was still a place to play with cards like the Black Lotus, the new format gave new cards a chance to shine, and reduced the demand for the oldest cards.
To help promote this new format, Wizards introduced the official Magic Pro Tour. Professional competitions have significant cash prize pools and, importantly, the tournament-legal formats all have set lists of format-legal cards.
Because the Pro Tour was a success, players did not just want to make any deck, they now wanted to make a tournament legal deck, even if they would only ever play Magic on Friday nights at their local game stores. And when the game stores host their own competitions, they follow the Wizards format rules. For the speculators, Wizards of the Coast did make one format where all cards were legal Vintage , and they eventually placed certain high value cards, like Black Lotus, on an official reserved list, meaning that they promised never to print that exact card again.
Thus, the Black Lotus is literally like the gold standard! Its value is anchored, even today, by high demand and a fixed supply. And while it is true to say that Magic was, in a sense, saved through regulation, it was and is entirely a matter of private initiative. Wizards may have a monopoly on Magic cards, but they do not have a monopoly over all trading card games.
Demand for Magic cards is still fairly elastic. Thus, unlike the Federal Reserve, the company is still restrained by the need to compete and make a profit. This company oversight has the additional benefit of providing a stable playing ground for players. Thus, Wizards serves some more traditional functions of a state by providing a basis for the rule of law among its consumers as well.
Last, these examples point to the abundance of resources freely available to researchers who want to use Magic as a natural experiment to test all kinds of economic propositions. The site tracks prices for every printing of every Magic card ever. Or, of course, simply due to relative scarcity. Other lands are non-basic and may produce other combinations or amounts of mana, or may have other abilities.
Lands are not spells and cannot be countered.
Playing a land does not use the stack and therefore occurs immediately, with no way for any player to stop it. Players are allowed to have any number of basic lands in a deck, but nonbasic lands follow the usual restriction of four copies of any one card per deck. Creatures represent people or beasts that are summoned to the battlefield to attack opposing creatures or players and defend their controller from the attacks of enemy creatures.
They normally cannot attack or use an ability with the "tap symbol" on the first turn they enter the battlefield. This is known as "summoning sickness". A creature with summoning sickness can block opposing creatures. Creatures have two values that represent their strength in combat, printed on the lower right-hand corner of the card.
The first number is the creature's power, the amount of damage it deals in combat. The second number is its toughness; if it receives that much damage in a single turn, the creature is not destroyed but is still placed in the graveyard. Creatures usually have at least one creature type, located after the word "creature" in the type line.
Creature types are simply markers and have no inherent abilities; for example, having the Bird type does not automatically give a creature the "flying" ability.
Some non-creature cards have the "Tribal" type, which allows them to have creature types without being creatures themselves. Enchantments represent persistent magical effects; they are spells that remain on the battlefield and alter some aspect of the game. Some enchantments are attached to other cards on the battlefield often creatures ; these are known as Auras. For example, an Aura with "Enchant green creature" can only be attached to a green creature.
If the card an Aura is attached to leaves the battlefield, or stops matching the Enchant ability, the Aura goes to the graveyard. Early in Magic, there was a subset of enchantments known as "World Enchantments" that effected all players equally for example, forcing them to play with their top card of their library revealed.
In addition, only one World Enchantment could be in play at a time. Such enchantments no longer need to carry the "World" designations. Later, Tribal Enchantments Enchantments with creature types were introduced, as were Curses, enchantments that targeted one player specifically.
Artifacts represent magical items, animated constructs, pieces of equipment, or other objects and devices.
Like enchantments, artifacts remain on the battlefield until something removes them. Many artifacts are also creatures; artifact creatures may attack and block as other creatures, and are affected by things that affect creatures.
Some artifacts are Equipment. Equipment cards enter the battlefield just like any other artifact, but may be attached to creatures using their Equip ability. This ability may only be used at the same time a player would be able to play a sorcery i. The player who controls the Equipment pays the Equip cost and attaches it to a creature he or she also controls, unattaching it from any creature it was already attached to. In this way, the Equipment may be "unequipped" from a creature by paying the Equip cost and moving it to another creature.
However, it may not be "unequipped" by choosing no creature; if for any reason the Equip ability cannot move the Equipment, it remains attached to its current creature. Like Auras, if control of the equipped creature changes, control of the Equipment does not change, nor is it unequipped. Unlike Auras, if an equipped creature is destroyed or otherwise leaves the battlefield, the Equipment stays on the battlefield unattached to anything; its controller can still attach it to a different creature by activating the Equip ability again.
A player can only equip equipment to creatures controlled by that player. Planeswalkers are extremely powerful spellcasters that can be called upon for aid. According to Magic lore, the player is a "planeswalker", a wizard of extraordinary power who can travel "walk" between different realms or universes "planes" ; as such, planeswalker cards are meant to represent scaled-down versions of other players, with their decks represented by the card's abilities, and originally were designed to move through a roster of effects without player control, as though they had a mind of their own.
Only one version of a planeswalker card may be on the battlefield at one time. If two or more copies of the same planeswalker card are on the battlefield, their owner chooses one and the other is put into the owner's graveyards, though the rule was changed in Magic allowing two or more planeswalkers with the same type to exist on the battlefield if not controlled by the same player.
Starting with Ixalan ,all planeswalkers past, present, and future gained the supertype legendary and became subject to the "legend rule". Thus, if a player controls more than one legendary planeswalker with the same name, that player chooses one and puts the other into their owner's graveyard.
Planeswalkers' abilities are based on their loyalty , which is tracked with counters. The number printed in the lower right corner indicates how many loyalty counters the planeswalker enters the battlefield with.
Planeswalkers' loyalty abilities each have a positive or negative loyalty cost; this is how many counters must be added if positive or removed if negative to activate that ability. Abilities with negative loyalty costs may only be activated if there are enough loyalty counters to remove. Regardless of the loyalty costs, a single planeswalker may only use one loyalty ability once per turn, and only on its controller's turn during his or her main phase.
Note that planeswalkers are neither creatures nor players, so most spells and abilities cannot target them directly. There are, however, two ways to deal damage to a planeswalker. If a player uses any spell or ability that would deal damage to an opponent, the player may instead choose to deal the damage to one of that opponent's planeswalkers.
Additionally, if a player attacks an opponent who controls a planeswalker, the player may declare any or all of the attacking creatures to be attacking the planeswalker instead. Those creatures may be blocked normally, but if not blocked deal damage to the planeswalker instead of the player.
Whenever damage is dealt to a planeswalker, that many loyalty counters are removed from it. A planeswalker with no loyalty counters, either through use of its abilities or through damage, is put into the player's graveyard. Sorceries and instants both represent one-shot or short-term magical spells. They never enter the battlefield.
Instead, they take effect and then are immediately put into their owner's graveyard. Sorceries and instants differ only in when they can be cast. Sorceries may only be cast during the player's own main phase, and only when the stack is empty.
Instants, on the other hand, can be cast at any time, including during other players' turns and while another spell or ability is waiting to resolve see timing and the stack. In sets released prior to , a third type of one-shot spell card existed called Interrupts. Interrupts functioned similar to instants but altered how the stack was resolved. Interrupts received an errata which stated that, from that point forward, interrupts were treated exactly the same as instants.
The beginning phase is composed of three parts, or "steps". The first thing a player does is untap all cards he or she controls in the "untap step". Then, any abilities that trigger on the "upkeep step" happen, starting with the player of the current turn. These often include cards that require mana payments every turn. Then the player draws a card in the "draw step".
In two-player games, the player who takes the first turn does not draw a card for that turn. No player receives priority during the untap step, meaning that no cards or abilities can be played at that time.
During the upkeep and draw steps, however, players can cast instants and activate abilities as normal. The main phase occurs immediately after the draw phase. During the main phase, a player may play any card from his or her hand unless that card specifies otherwise, and as long as he or she has the mana to pay its casting cost.
This means creature, planeswalker, sorcery, instant, land, enchantment, and artifact cards are all acceptable to play. This is a player's chance to bring something onto the field. Usually, players will start their main phase by playing a land. Then, as long as they have the mana to pay the casting cost, they will play any number of cards from their hand, reading the card's name so that other players may hear.
Once a player is ready to attack, he or she may end their main phase by declaring that the combat phase has started, or by simply attacking with their creatures. The combat phase is split into four steps. It represents a point in the magical duel where the active player sends his or her creatures to attack the opposing player, in the hopes of doing damage to the player or the player's creatures.
Aside from instants, activated abilities, and spells that are specifically noted as being able to be played at any time i. Multiple creatures may attack at the same time, but the turn player may only declare their list of attackers once.
No specific actions take place at the beginning of combat step. This step mainly exists to allow players to cast spells and activate abilities that may alter how combat progresses. As the most common example, only untapped creatures may attack, so the defending player may cast instants or activate abilities that will tap a creature, preventing it from attacking.
The player whose turn it is declares which creatures he or she controls will attack. In most cases, creatures that are tapped, or that entered the battlefield this turn i. Attacking causes a creature to become tapped. Both players are given a chance to cast instants and activate abilities after attackers have been declared.
After the attacking player declares attackers, the defending player chooses which creatures he or she will block with. A creature must be untapped in order for it to block. Unlike attacking, the act of blocking does not cause the blocking creatures to tap, and creatures with summoning sickness can block. Each creature can only block a single attacker, but the defending player may choose to block an attacking creature with more than one creature.
Both players are given a chance to cast instants and activate abilities after blockers have been declared. If the blocker decides to combine defenses, the attacker gets to decide how attack points are distributed between the combined cards. After the combat phase there is another main phase.
The second main phase is identical to the first, except a player can only put down a land if that player did not place a land in the first main phase, and the player can cast spells. I use 8. You don't like Planechase or printing out new cards? In that case, you don't have to search anymore, because even for that sencario are we prepared. Here you can get some easy drinking rules that will spice up your magic game!
Whenever a spell is countered, it's controller drinks. Whenever a permanent is destroyed by a spell or ability, that permanents controller drinks.
Whenever a player draws a card, that player drinks for each card that player draws. Whenever a player exiles a permanent, that player drinks. Whenever a player prevents damage, that player chooses another player that drinks for each damage prevented. Whenever a player sacrifices a permanent, each other player drinks. Whenever a card is returned to your hand by an opponents source, drink.
That player drinks.
Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules
Whenever a player gains life, each other player drinks. Whenever a player loses life, that player drinks for each life lost. Whenever a player activate a planeswalkers ulti, eh other player takes a shot.When Tom's turn ends, the single point of damage is removed from the Grizzly Bears, and the Giant Growth effect wears off at the same time. Attacking causes a creature to become tapped. The M15 version is available from the Wizards site.
When you have an endless supply of artifact Droids, victory is but a matter of time. The first cards were made in Upkeep Step Pogs, Tamagotchis, and Beanie Babies.
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